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F.S. 893.135 on Google Scholar

F.S. 893.135 on Casetext

Amendments to 893.135


The 2021 Florida Statutes

Title XLVI
CRIMES
Chapter 893
DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONTROL
View Entire Chapter
F.S. 893.135 Florida Statutes and Case Law
893.135 Trafficking; mandatory sentences; suspension or reduction of sentences; conspiracy to engage in trafficking.
(1) Except as authorized in this chapter or in chapter 499 and notwithstanding the provisions of s. 893.13:
(a) Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, in excess of 25 pounds of cannabis, or 300 or more cannabis plants, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in cannabis,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity of cannabis involved:
1. Is in excess of 25 pounds, but less than 2,000 pounds, or is 300 or more cannabis plants, but not more than 2,000 cannabis plants, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $25,000.
2. Is 2,000 pounds or more, but less than 10,000 pounds, or is 2,000 or more cannabis plants, but not more than 10,000 cannabis plants, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
3. Is 10,000 pounds or more, or is 10,000 or more cannabis plants, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $200,000.

For the purpose of this paragraph, a plant, including, but not limited to, a seedling or cutting, is a “cannabis plant” if it has some readily observable evidence of root formation, such as root hairs. To determine if a piece or part of a cannabis plant severed from the cannabis plant is itself a cannabis plant, the severed piece or part must have some readily observable evidence of root formation, such as root hairs. Callous tissue is not readily observable evidence of root formation. The viability and sex of a plant and the fact that the plant may or may not be a dead harvested plant are not relevant in determining if the plant is a “cannabis plant” or in the charging of an offense under this paragraph. Upon conviction, the court shall impose the longest term of imprisonment provided for in this paragraph.

(b)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 28 grams or more of cocaine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., or of any mixture containing cocaine, but less than 150 kilograms of cocaine or any such mixture, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in cocaine,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 400 grams or more, but less than 150 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.
2. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 150 kilograms or more of cocaine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., commits the first degree felony of trafficking in cocaine. A person who has been convicted of the first degree felony of trafficking in cocaine under this subparagraph shall be punished by life imprisonment and is ineligible for any form of discretionary early release except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149. However, if the court determines that, in addition to committing any act specified in this paragraph:
a. The person intentionally killed an individual or counseled, commanded, induced, procured, or caused the intentional killing of an individual and such killing was the result; or
b. The person’s conduct in committing that act led to a natural, though not inevitable, lethal result,

such person commits the capital felony of trafficking in cocaine, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

3. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 300 kilograms or more of cocaine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)4., and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person, commits capital importation of cocaine, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.
(c)1. A person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 4 grams or more of any morphine, opium, hydromorphone, or any salt, derivative, isomer, or salt of an isomer thereof, including heroin, as described in s. 893.03(1)(b), (2)(a), (3)(c)3., or (3)(c)4., or 4 grams or more of any mixture containing any such substance, but less than 30 kilograms of such substance or mixture, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in illegal drugs,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 4 grams or more, but less than 14 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 14 grams or more, but less than 28 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 30 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 25 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $500,000.
2. A person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 28 grams or more of hydrocodone, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)1.k., codeine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)1.g., or any salt thereof, or 28 grams or more of any mixture containing any such substance, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in hydrocodone,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 50 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 50 grams or more, but less than 100 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 100 grams or more, but less than 300 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $500,000.
d. Is 300 grams or more, but less than 30 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 25 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $750,000.
3. A person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 7 grams or more of oxycodone, as described in s. 893.03(2)(a)1.q., or any salt thereof, or 7 grams or more of any mixture containing any such substance, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in oxycodone,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 7 grams or more, but less than 14 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 14 grams or more, but less than 25 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 25 grams or more, but less than 100 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $500,000.
d. Is 100 grams or more, but less than 30 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 25 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $750,000.
4.a. A person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 4 grams or more of:
(I) Alfentanil, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b)1.;
(II) Carfentanil, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b)6.;
(III) Fentanyl, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b)9.;
(IV) Sufentanil, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b)30.;
(V) A fentanyl derivative, as described in s. 893.03(1)(a)62.;
(VI) A controlled substance analog, as described in s. 893.0356, of any substance described in sub-sub-subparagraphs (I)-(V); or
(VII) A mixture containing any substance described in sub-sub-subparagraphs (I)-(VI),

commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in fentanyl,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

b. If the quantity involved under sub-subparagraph a.:
(I) Is 4 grams or more, but less than 14 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
(II) Is 14 grams or more, but less than 28 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 years, and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
(III) Is 28 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 25 years, and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $500,000.
5. A person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 30 kilograms or more of any morphine, opium, oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, hydromorphone, or any salt, derivative, isomer, or salt of an isomer thereof, including heroin, as described in s. 893.03(1)(b), (2)(a), (3)(c)3., or (3)(c)4., or 30 kilograms or more of any mixture containing any such substance, commits the first degree felony of trafficking in illegal drugs. A person who has been convicted of the first degree felony of trafficking in illegal drugs under this subparagraph shall be punished by life imprisonment and is ineligible for any form of discretionary early release except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149. However, if the court determines that, in addition to committing any act specified in this paragraph:
a. The person intentionally killed an individual or counseled, commanded, induced, procured, or caused the intentional killing of an individual and such killing was the result; or
b. The person’s conduct in committing that act led to a natural, though not inevitable, lethal result,

such person commits the capital felony of trafficking in illegal drugs, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. A person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

6. A person who knowingly brings into this state 60 kilograms or more of any morphine, opium, oxycodone, hydrocodone, codeine, hydromorphone, or any salt, derivative, isomer, or salt of an isomer thereof, including heroin, as described in s. 893.03(1)(b), (2)(a), (3)(c)3., or (3)(c)4., or 60 kilograms or more of any mixture containing any such substance, and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of a person, commits capital importation of illegal drugs, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. A person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.
(d)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 28 grams or more of phencyclidine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b)23., a substituted phenylcyclohexylamine, as described in s. 893.03(1)(c)195., or a substance described in s. 893.03(1)(c)13., 32., 38., 103., or 146., or of any mixture containing phencyclidine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b)23., a substituted phenylcyclohexylamine, as described in s. 893.03(1)(c)195., or a substance described in s. 893.03(1)(c)13., 32., 38., 103., or 146., commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in phencyclidine,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.
2. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 800 grams or more of phencyclidine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b)23., a substituted phenylcyclohexylamine, as described in s. 893.03(1)(c)195., or a substance described in s. 893.03(1)(c)13., 32., 38., 103., or 146., or of any mixture containing phencyclidine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(b)23., a substituted phenylcyclohexylamine, as described in s. 893.03(1)(c)195., or a substance described in s. 893.03(1)(c)13., 32., 38., 103., or 146., and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person commits capital importation of phencyclidine, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.
(e)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 200 grams or more of methaqualone or of any mixture containing methaqualone, as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in methaqualone,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 5 kilograms or more, but less than 25 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 25 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.
2. Any person who knowingly brings into this state 50 kilograms or more of methaqualone or of any mixture containing methaqualone, as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), and who knows that the probable result of such importation would be the death of any person commits capital importation of methaqualone, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.
(f)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 14 grams or more of amphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)2., or methamphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)5., or of any mixture containing amphetamine or methamphetamine, or phenylacetone, phenylacetic acid, pseudoephedrine, or ephedrine in conjunction with other chemicals and equipment utilized in the manufacture of amphetamine or methamphetamine, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in amphetamine,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 14 grams or more, but less than 28 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 28 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 200 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.
2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 400 grams or more of amphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)2., or methamphetamine, as described in s. 893.03(2)(c)5., or of any mixture containing amphetamine or methamphetamine, or phenylacetone, phenylacetic acid, pseudoephedrine, or ephedrine in conjunction with other chemicals and equipment used in the manufacture of amphetamine or methamphetamine, and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of amphetamine, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.
(g)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 4 grams or more of flunitrazepam or any mixture containing flunitrazepam as described in s. 893.03(1)(a) commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in flunitrazepam,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 4 grams or more but less than 14 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 14 grams or more but less than 28 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 28 grams or more but less than 30 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 25 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000.
2. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of 30 kilograms or more of flunitrazepam or any mixture containing flunitrazepam as described in s. 893.03(1)(a) commits the first degree felony of trafficking in flunitrazepam. A person who has been convicted of the first degree felony of trafficking in flunitrazepam under this subparagraph shall be punished by life imprisonment and is ineligible for any form of discretionary early release except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149. However, if the court determines that, in addition to committing any act specified in this paragraph:
a. The person intentionally killed an individual or counseled, commanded, induced, procured, or caused the intentional killing of an individual and such killing was the result; or
b. The person’s conduct in committing that act led to a natural, though not inevitable, lethal result,

such person commits the capital felony of trafficking in flunitrazepam, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.

(h)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 kilogram or more of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB),” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 1 kilogram or more but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 5 kilograms or more but less than 10 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 10 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.
2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 150 kilograms or more of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.
(i)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 kilogram or more of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in gamma-butyrolactone (GBL),” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 1 kilogram or more but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 5 kilograms or more but less than 10 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 10 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $250,000.
2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into the state 150 kilograms or more of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.
(j)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 kilogram or more of 1,4-Butanediol as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or of any mixture containing 1,4-Butanediol, commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in 1,4-Butanediol,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 1 kilogram or more, but less than 5 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 5 kilograms or more, but less than 10 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 10 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000.
2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 150 kilograms or more of 1,4-Butanediol as described in s. 893.03(1)(d), or any mixture containing 1,4-Butanediol, and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of 1,4-Butanediol, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.
(k)1. A person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 10 grams or more of a:
a. Substance described in s. 893.03(1)(c)4., 5., 10., 11., 15., 17., 21.-27., 29., 39., 40.-45., 58., 72.-80., 81.-86., 90.-102., 104.-108., 110.-113., 143.-145., 148.-150., 160.-163., 165., or 187.-189., a substituted cathinone, as described in s. 893.03(1)(c)191., or substituted phenethylamine, as described in s. 893.03(1)(c)192.;
b. Mixture containing any substance described in sub-subparagraph a.; or
c. Salt, isomer, ester, or ether or salt of an isomer, ester, or ether of a substance described in sub-subparagraph a.,

commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in phenethylamines,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. If the quantity involved under subparagraph 1.:
a. Is 10 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 200 grams or more, but less than 400 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 400 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 years and shall be ordered to pay a fine of $250,000.
3. A person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 30 kilograms or more of a substance described in sub-subparagraph 1.a., a mixture described in sub-subparagraph 1.b., or a salt, isomer, ester, or ether or a salt of an isomer, ester, or ether described in sub-subparagraph 1.c., and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of phenethylamines, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. A person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine under subparagraph 2.
(l)1. Any person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 1 gram or more of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as described in s. 893.03(1)(c), or of any mixture containing lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD),” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. If the quantity involved:
a. Is 1 gram or more, but less than 5 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 5 grams or more, but less than 7 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 7 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 calendar years and pay a fine of $500,000.
2. Any person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 7 grams or more of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) as described in s. 893.03(1)(c), or any mixture containing lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. Any person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine provided under subparagraph 1.
(m)1. A person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 280 grams or more of a:
a. Substance described in s. 893.03(1)(c)30., 46.-50., 114.-142., 151.-156., 166.-173., or 176.-186. or a synthetic cannabinoid, as described in s. 893.03(1)(c)190.; or
b. Mixture containing any substance described in sub-subparagraph a.,

commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in synthetic cannabinoids,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. If the quantity involved under subparagraph 1.:
a. Is 280 grams or more, but less than 500 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 500 grams or more, but less than 1,000 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 1,000 grams or more, but less than 30 kilograms, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $200,000.
d. Is 30 kilograms or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 25 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $750,000.
(n)1. A person who knowingly sells, purchases, manufactures, delivers, or brings into this state, or who is knowingly in actual or constructive possession of, 14 grams or more of:
a. A substance described in s. 893.03(1)(c)164., 174., or 175., a n-benzyl phenethylamine compound, as described in s. 893.03(1)(c)193.; or
b. A mixture containing any substance described in sub-subparagraph a.,

commits a felony of the first degree, which felony shall be known as “trafficking in n-benzyl phenethylamines,” punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

2. If the quantity involved under subparagraph 1.:
a. Is 14 grams or more, but less than 100 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 3 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $50,000.
b. Is 100 grams or more, but less than 200 grams, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 7 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $100,000.
c. Is 200 grams or more, such person shall be sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment of 15 years, and the defendant shall be ordered to pay a fine of $500,000.
3. A person who knowingly manufactures or brings into this state 400 grams or more of a substance described in sub-subparagraph 1.a. or a mixture described in sub-subparagraph 1.b., and who knows that the probable result of such manufacture or importation would be the death of any person commits capital manufacture or importation of a n-benzyl phenethylamine compound, a capital felony punishable as provided in ss. 775.082 and 921.142. A person sentenced for a capital felony under this paragraph shall also be sentenced to pay the maximum fine under subparagraph 2.
(2) A person acts knowingly under subsection (1) if that person intends to sell, purchase, manufacture, deliver, or bring into this state, or to actually or constructively possess, any of the controlled substances listed in subsection (1), regardless of which controlled substance listed in subsection (1) is in fact sold, purchased, manufactured, delivered, or brought into this state, or actually or constructively possessed.
(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 948.01, with respect to any person who is found to have violated this section, adjudication of guilt or imposition of sentence shall not be suspended, deferred, or withheld, nor shall such person be eligible for parole prior to serving the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment prescribed by this section. A person sentenced to a mandatory minimum term of imprisonment under this section is not eligible for any form of discretionary early release, except pardon or executive clemency or conditional medical release under s. 947.149, prior to serving the mandatory minimum term of imprisonment.
(4) The state attorney may move the sentencing court to reduce or suspend the sentence of any person who is convicted of a violation of this section and who provides substantial assistance in the identification, arrest, or conviction of any of that person’s accomplices, accessories, coconspirators, or principals or of any other person engaged in trafficking in controlled substances. The arresting agency shall be given an opportunity to be heard in aggravation or mitigation in reference to any such motion. Upon good cause shown, the motion may be filed and heard in camera. The judge hearing the motion may reduce or suspend the sentence if the judge finds that the defendant rendered such substantial assistance.
(5) Any person who agrees, conspires, combines, or confederates with another person to commit any act prohibited by subsection (1) commits a felony of the first degree and is punishable as if he or she had actually committed such prohibited act. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prohibit separate convictions and sentences for a violation of this subsection and any violation of subsection (1).
(6) A mixture, as defined in s. 893.02, containing any controlled substance described in this section includes, but is not limited to, a solution or a dosage unit, including but not limited to, a gelatin capsule, pill, or tablet, containing a controlled substance. For the purpose of clarifying legislative intent regarding the weighing of a mixture containing a controlled substance described in this section, the weight of the controlled substance is the total weight of the mixture, including the controlled substance and any other substance in the mixture. If there is more than one mixture containing the same controlled substance, the weight of the controlled substance is calculated by aggregating the total weight of each mixture.
(7) For the purpose of further clarifying legislative intent, the Legislature finds that the opinion in Hayes v. State, 750 So. 2d 1 (Fla. 1999) does not correctly construe legislative intent. The Legislature finds that the opinions in State v. Hayes, 720 So. 2d 1095 (Fla. 4th DCA 1998) and State v. Baxley, 684 So. 2d 831 (Fla. 5th DCA 1996) correctly construe legislative intent.
History.s. 1, ch. 79-1; s. 1, ch. 80-70; s. 2, ch. 80-353; s. 491, ch. 81-259; s. 1, ch. 82-2; s. 3, ch. 82-16; s. 53, ch. 83-215; s. 5, ch. 87-243; ss. 1, 4, ch. 89-281; s. 1, ch. 90-112; s. 3, ch. 93-92; s. 24, ch. 93-406; s. 15, ch. 95-184; s. 5, ch. 95-415; s. 54, ch. 96-388; s. 3, ch. 97-1; s. 1828, ch. 97-102; s. 23, ch. 97-194; s. 9, ch. 99-188; s. 4, ch. 2000-320; s. 2, ch. 2001-55; s. 7, ch. 2001-57; ss. 1, 2, 3, ch. 2002-212; s. 4, ch. 2003-10; s. 3, ch. 2005-128; s. 7, ch. 2008-184; s. 5, ch. 2011-73; s. 3, ch. 2011-90; s. 4, ch. 2013-29; s. 3, ch. 2014-159; s. 1, ch. 2014-176; s. 14, ch. 2015-34; s. 6, ch. 2016-13; s. 6, ch. 2016-105; s. 6, ch. 2017-1; s. 6, ch. 2017-107; s. 18, ch. 2018-13; s. 45, ch. 2019-167.

Statutes updated from Official Statutes on: January 26, 2022
F.S. 893.135 on Google Scholar

F.S. 893.135 on Casetext

Amendments to 893.135


Arrestable Offenses / Crimes under Fla. Stat. 893.135
Level: Degree
Misdemeanor/Felony: First/Second/Third

893.135 1a - MARIJUANA-TRAFFIC - EXCESS OF 25 LBS OR 300 PLANTS OR MORE - F: F
893.135 1b1 - COCAINE-TRAFFIC - 28 GRAMS LESS THAN 150 KG COCAINE OR MIXTURE - F: F
893.135 1b2 - COCAINE-TRAFFIC - 150 KG OR MORE - F: F
893.135 1b2a - COCAINE-TRAFFIC - 150 KG OR MORE AND KILL - F: C
893.135 1b2b - COCAINE-TRAFFIC - 150 KG OR MORE WITH LETHAL RESULT - F: C
893.135 1b3 - COCAINE-SMUGGL - IMPORT 300 KG OR MORE KNOW DEATH MAY RESULT - F: C
893.135 1c1 - HEROIN-TRAFFIC - 4 GRAMS TO UNDER 30 KILOGRAMS - F: F
893.135 1c1 - OPIUM OR DERIV-TRAFFIC - 4 GRAMS TO UNDER 30 KILOGRAMS - F: F
893.135 1c1 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - 4 GRAMS LESS 30 KG OTHER CNTRL SUBST - F: F
893.135 1c2 - HEROIN-TRAFFIC - 30 KG OR MORE HEROIN OR MIXTURE - F: F
893.135 1c2 - OPIUM OR DERIV-TRAFFIC - 30 KG OR MORE OPIUM OR MIXTURE - F: F
893.135 1c2 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - 30 KG OR MORE OTHER CNTRL SUBST - F: F
893.135 1c2a - HEROIN-TRAFFIC - 30 KG OR MORE AND KILL - F: C
893.135 1c2a - OPIUM OR DERIV-TRAFFIC - 30 KG OR MORE AND KILL - F: C
893.135 1c2a - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - 30 KG OR MORE OTHER CNTRL SUBST AND KILL - F: C
893.135 1c2b - HEROIN-TRAFFIC - 30 KG OR MORE WITH LETHAL RESULT - F: C
893.135 1c2b - OPIUM OR DERIV-TRAFFIC - 30 KG OR MORE WITH LETHAL RESULT - F: C
893.135 1c2b - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - 30 KG OR MORE OTHR CNTRL SUBST W LETHAL RESULT - F: C
893.135 1c3 - HEROIN-SMUGGL - CAPITAL IMPORTATION 60KG OR MORE RESULT DEATH - F: C
893.135 1c3 - OPIUM OR DERIV-SMUGGL - CAPITAL IMPORTATION 60KG OR MORE RESULT DEATH - F: C
893.135 1c3 - DRUGS-SMUGGLE - CAPITAL IMPORTATION 60 KG OR MORE RESULT DEATH - F: C
893.135 1d1 - SYNTH NARCOTIC-TRAFFIC - IN PHENCYCLIDINE 28 GRAMS OR OVER - F: F
893.135 1d2 - DRUGS-SMUGGLE - CAPITAL IMPORT PHENCYCLIDINE 800 GRAMS OR MORE - F: C
893.135 1e1 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - IN METHAQUALONE 200 GRAMS OR OVER - F: F
893.135 1e2 - DRUGS-SMUGGLE - CAPITAL IMPORTATION METHAQUALONE 50 KG OR MORE - F: C
893.135 1f1 - AMPHETAMINE-TRAFFIC - OR METHAMPHETAMINE 14 GRAMS OR OVER - F: F
893.135 1f2 - AMPHETAMINE-SMUGGL - OR METHAMPHETAMINE CAPITAL IMP 400 GRAMS MORE - F: C
893.135 1f2 - AMPHETAMINE-MFG - CAPITAL MFG 400 GRAMS OR MORE - F: C
893.135 1g1 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - FLUNITRAZEPAM 4 GRAMS TO UNDER 30 KILOGRAMS - F: F
893.135 1g2 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - IN FLUNITRAZEPAM 30 KG OR MORE - F: F
893.135 1g2a - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - CAPITAL; 30 KG FLUNITRAZEPAM OR MORE AND KILL - F: C
893.135 1g2b - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - IN FLUNITRAZEPAM 30 KG MORE W LETHAL RESULT - F: C
893.135 1h1 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID (GHB) 1 KG OR MORE - F: F
893.135 1h2 - DRUGS-SMUGGLE - GAMMA-HYDROXY (GHB) 150 KG MORE RESLT DEATH - F: C
893.135 1h2 - DRUGS-PRODUCE - GAMMA-HYDROXY (GHB) 150 KG MORE RESLT DEATH - F: C
893.135 1i1 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - 1KG MORE GAMMABUTYROLACTONE (GBL) - F: F
893.135 1i2 - DRUGS-SMUGGLE - 150KG MORE GAMMABUTYROL (GBL) RESULT DEATH - F: C
893.135 1i2 - DRUGS-PRODUCE - 150KG MORE GAMMABUTYROL (GBL) RESULT DEATH - F: C
893.135 1j1 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - 1 4 BUTANEDIOL 1 KG OR MORE - F: F
893.135 1j2 - DRUGS-SMUGGLE - 1 4 BUTANEDIOL 150 KG OR MORE RESULT DEATH - F: C
893.135 1j2 - DRUGS-PRODUCE - 1 4 BUTANEDIOL 150 KG OR MORE RESULT DEATH - F: C
893.135 1k1 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - PHENETHYLAMINES 10 GRAMS OR MORE - F: F
893.135 1k3 - DRUGS-SMUGGLE - PHENETHYLAMINES 30 KILOGRAMS MORE RES DEATH - F: C
893.135 1k3 - DRUGS-PRODUCE - PHENETHYLAMINES 30 KILOGRAMS MORE RES DEATH - F: C
893.135 1l1 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - 1G MORE LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD) - F: F
893.135 1l2 - DRUGS-SMUGGLE - 7G MORE LYSERGIC ACID DIETH (LSD) RESULT DEATH - F: C
893.135 1l2 - DRUGS-PRODUCE - 7G MORE LYSERGIC ACID DIETH (LSD) RESULT DEATH - F: C
893.135 5 - HEROIN-TRAFFIC - CONSPIRE COMBINE OR CONFEDERATES W ANOTHER TO - F: F
893.135 5 - OPIUM OR DERIV-TRAFFIC - CONSPIRE COMBINE OR CONFEDERATES W ANOTHER TO - F: F
893.135 5 - COCAINE-TRAFFIC - CONSPIRE COMBINE OR CONFEDERATES W ANOTHER TO - F: F
893.135 5 - SYNTH NARCOTIC-TRAFFIC - PHENCYCLIDINE CONSPIRE COMBINE CONFEDERATE W - F: F
893.135 5 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - CNTRL SUBS CONSPIRE COMBINE CONFEDERATES TO - F: F
893.135 5 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - IN CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE - F: F
893.135 5 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - METHAQUALONE CONSPIRE COMBINE CONFEDERATES TO - F: F
893.135 5 - MARIJUANA-TRAFFIC - CONSPIRE COMBINE OR CONFEDERATES W ANOTHER TO - F: F
893.135 5 - AMPHETAMINE-TRAFFIC - CONSPIRE COMBINE OR CONFEDERATES W ANOTHER TO - F: F
893.135 5 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - FLUNITRAZEPAM CONSPIRE COMBINE CONFEDERATE - F: F
893.135 5 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - GAMMA-HYDROXY (GHB) CONSP COMBINE CONFED - F: F
893.135 5 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - 1 4 BUTANEDIOL CONSPIRE COMBINE CONFEDERATE - F: F
893.135 5 - DRUGS-TRAFFIC - PHENETHYLAMINES CONSPIRE COMBINE CONFEDERATE - F: F


Civil Citations / Citable Offenses under S893.135
R or S next to points is Mandatory Revocation or Suspension

Current data shows no reason a civil citation or a suspension or revocation of license should have been issued under Florida Statute 893.135.


Annotations, Discussions, Cases:

  1. State v. Benitez

    395 So. 2d 514 (Fla. 1981)   Cited 152 times
    After Carlos and Esperanza Benitez attempted to sell one kilo of cocaine to undercover narcotics agents for $44,000, they were charged by information with "trafficking in cocaine" in violation of section 893.135. In ruling on motions to dismiss the charges, the trial court entered a lengthy order declaring section 893.135 to be facially invalid on a multiplicity of grounds. The state appeals that order, urging error in each of the trial court's rulings.
    PAGE 516
  2. Hayes v. State

    750 So. 2d 1 (Fla. 1999)   Cited 100 times
    However, this Court must be guided primarily by the statutory language employed when determining the legislative intent.See Overstreet, 629 So.2d at 126. Thus, we return to section 893.135(1)(c)1, the drug trafficking statute in this case, to determine if it contains language authorizing the construction urged by the State and adopted by the Fourth and Fifth Districts. According to the language of the statute at issue here, possession of "4 grams or more of any . . . hydrocodone . . . as described in s. 893.03(1)(b) [Schedule I] or (2)(a) [Schedule II], or 4 grams or more of any mixture containing any such substance" is punishable under the trafficking statutes. § 893.135(1)(c)1 (emphasis supplied). The phrase, "as described in s. 893.03(1)(b) or (2)(a) [Schedules I or II]," restricts the applicability of the trafficking statute to only those drugs described in Schedule I or Schedule II. Therefore, the drug trafficking statute prohibits the possession of 4 grams or more of any Schedule I or II drug "or 4 grams or more of any mixture containingsuch substance." § 893.135(1)(c)1 (emphasis supplied).
    PAGE 5
  3. U.S. v. Shannon

    631 F.3d 1187 (11th Cir. 2011)   Cited 42 times
    Because the Florida statute under which Roye was convicted encompasses some offenses that would qualify as a "controlled substance offense" — such as the possession of 28 grams or more of cocaine — and others that would not — such as the purchase of that amount of cocaine — we must follow the modified categorical approach. Even following this approach, however, the two Shepard documents the government submitted — namely, the information and the plea agreement — do not resolve the ambiguity in Roye's conviction. Count 1 of the information simply tracks the disjunctive language of Florida Statute § 893.135(1)(b) in stating that "[o]n March 26, 1996, [Roye] did unlawfully and knowingly sell, purchase, manufacture, deliver, or was knowingly in actual or constructive possession of more than More than [ sic] 28 grams of Cocaine, a controlled substance defined in Section 893.03, contrary to Section 893.135." DE 37-5. The plea agreement is equally uninformative, simply stating that Roye pled no contest to "trafficking in [a] controlled substance." DE 37-3.
    PAGE 1192
  4. U.S. v. James

    430 F.3d 1150 (11th Cir. 2005)   Cited 71 times
    Florida, like Georgia, has a three-tiered scheme for punishing drug-related offenses. Under Florida law, those three tiers are the following: (1) possession of any amount of a controlled substance, Fla. Stat. § 893.13(6)(a); (2) possession with intent to distribute a controlled substance, § 893.13(1)(a); and (3) trafficking in cocaine by possession of 28 grams or more of the drug, § 893.135(1)(b). Under this third tier, trafficking in cocaine is further delineated according to the amount of drugs that the defendant possessed, and the sentence imposed increases accordingly. See id. James was convicted under this third tier for possession of between 200 and 400 grams of cocaine. Fla. Stat. § 893.135(1)(b)(1)(b).
    PAGE 1154
  5. O'Hara v. State

    964 So. 2d 839 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 2007)   Cited 23 times
    The drug trafficking statute, section 893.135, contains no express language setting forth a prescription defense. However, its proscriptions against the sale, delivery, or possession of trafficking amounts of certain drugs are prefaced by the following qualification: " Except as authorized in this chapter or in chapter 4,99 and notwithstanding the provisions of s. 893.13: . . ." § 893.135(1) (emphasis supplied). O'Hara argues that the emphasized language makes the above-quoted prescription defenses available to the defendant in a trafficking prosecution under section 893.135.
    PAGE 841
  6. State v. Holland

    689 So. 2d 1268 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 1997)   Cited 32 times
    Holland was charged with five counts of trafficking in "[h]ydrocodone also known as Lortab and/or Vicodin, a controlled substance defined in Section 893.03 Florida Statutes, in violation of 893.135 Florida Statutes." Holland filed a motion to dismiss, accompanied by an affidavit of a licensed pharmacist, attesting that the drug alleged in the information was not a Schedule II drug, but rather a Schedule III drug falling outside the purview of section 893.135(1)(c), Florida Statutes. The lower court agreed, and dismissed the information.
  7. State v. Estevez

    753 So. 2d 1 (Fla. 1999)   Cited 23 times
    Jones, 119 S.Ct. at 1224. In Jones, the Court noted that a contrary ruling would give rise to serious constitutional concerns. The Supreme Court's reasoning in Jones is very similar to our reasoning in Weller, where we held that, in essence, the alternative provisions of section 893.135 are lesser included offenses that must be submitted to the jury. Obviously, under the provisions of section 893.135 and its punishment scheme, the jury's role is critical. See Weller.
    PAGE 6
  8. State v. Hayes

    720 So. 2d 1095 (Fla. Dist. Ct. App. 1998)   Cited 20 times
    In State v. Baxley, 684 So.2d 831 (Fla. 5th DCA 1996), rev. denied, 694 So.2d 737 (Fla. 1997), the Fifth District answered that question in the affirmative holding that "[i]f the number of tablets aggregates 4 grams or more of hydrocodone or a mixture of hydrocodone, then . . . prosecution is proper under section 893.135." In Holland, however, the First District reached the opposite conclusion holding that "if a mixture containing the controlled substance falls within the parameters set forth in Schedule III, the amount of the controlled substance per dosage unit, not the aggregate amount or weight" is determinative for prosecution under section 893.135(1)(c)1. Accord State v. Perry, 716 So.2d 327 (Fla. 2d DCA 1998) (affirmed dismissal of charges based on Holland). Based upon our reading of the legislative history of section 893.135(1)(c)1, as well as the United States Supreme Court's interpretation of the federal law on which our state statute is based, we reach the same conclusion as the court in Baxley.
    PAGE 1096
  9. State v. Daophin

    533 So. 2d 761 (Fla. 1988)   Cited 35 times
    Under the statute, the offense may be proven under five alternatives: (1) knowingly selling; (2) knowingly manufacturing; (3) knowingly delivering; (4) knowingly bringing into the state; or (5) knowingly being in possession of 28 grams or more of cocaine. The schedule of lesser included offenses, page 274, Florida Standard Jury Instructions (Criminal), recognized that instructions on lesser included (category one) offenses would be given as follows: (1) section 893.13(1)(a) if sale, manufacture, or delivery is charged; (2) section 893.13(1)(d) if bringing cocaine into the state is charged; or (3) section 893.13(1)(e) if possession of cocaine is charged. The state chose by its allegations to narrow the charge to trafficking by delivery only. In addition to the primary charge of trafficking by delivery of over 400 grams of cocaine (section 893.135( 1)(b)3), the jury was instructed on three lesser included offenses: (1) trafficking by delivery of over 200 but less than 400 grams of cocaine (section 893.135( 1)(b)2); (2) trafficking by delivery of over 28 but less than 200 grams of cocaine (section 893.135( 1)(b)1); and (3) delivering 28 grams or less of…
    PAGE 762
  10. State v. Hunter

    586 So. 2d 319 (Fla. 1991)   Cited 62 times
    The controlling statute in effect in this case provided that the state may move to reduce or suspend the sentence of a defendant who provides "substantial assistance in the identification, arrest, or conviction of any of his accomplices, accessories, coconspirators, or principles." § 893.135(3), Fla. Stat. (1985). The legislature subsequently expanded the statute to benefit defendants who provide "substantial assistance in the identification, arrest, or conviction of any of his accomplices, accessories, coconspirators, or principles or of any other person engaged in trafficking in controlled substances." Ch. 87-243, § 5, Laws of Fla. (codified at § 893.135(4), Fla. Stat. (1987)) (underscore in original). In neither version of the statute does the legislature direct the use of "substantial assistance" to manufacture crime, nor may the legislature do so. See, e.g., State v. Embry, 563 So.2d 147, 149 (Fla. 2d DCA 1990).
    PAGE 323